List of Indian Inventions is one of the Major topics which they are frequently asking in all competitive exams. We took more effort on Indian scientists and their inventions and made it easy for you to secure good marks in Banks exams. Make note of Indian scientist and their inventions which will help you to gain more knowledge.
Indian Inventions in Construction and Architecture
Iron pillar of Delhi:
- The world’s first iron pillar is the Iron pillar of Delhi.
- In the times of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–413) the building of the pillar is made.
- The pillar got the attention of archaeologists and materials scientists and is got to know as “a testament to the skill of ancient Indian blacksmiths”.
- The origin of the stupa can is a mark at the 3rd-century BCE India.
- It was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.
- The stupa architecture was adoption in Southeast and East Asia, where it got evolves into the pagoda, a Buddhist monument for enshrining sacred relics.
- Flush toilets using water is at several houses of the cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa from the 3rd millennium B.C.
- Earliest evidence of stepwell is found in the Indus Valley Civilization’s archaeological site at Mohenjodaro in Pakistan.
- The well combines a bathing pool, steps leading down to water, and figures of some religious importance into one structure.
- Rock-cut step wells in the subcontinent date from 200 to 400 CE. Subsequently, the wells at Dhank (550-625 CE) and stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850-950 CE) were constructed.
Metrology Field Inventions
- Bengali scientist Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose in the early 20th century made an invention to the crescograph, a device for measuring growth in the plant.
- Rulers made from Ivory were in use by the Indus Valley Civilization in what today is Pakistan and some parts of Western India prior to 1500 BCE.
- Excavations at Lothal (2400 BCE) have yielded one such ruler calibrated to about 1/16 of an inch—less than 2 millimetres.
- The incense clock is a timekeeping device used to measure minutes, hours, or days, they were commonly used at homes and temples.
- The incense clock is believed to have originated in India, in its fundamental form if not function.
- Early incense clocks found in China between the 6th and 8th centuries CE—the period it appeared in China all seem to have Devanāgarī carvings on them instead of Chinese seal characters.
- Incense itself was introduced to China from India in the early centuries CE, along with the spread of Buddhism by travelling monks.
Seamless celestial globe:
- It was invented in India between 1589 and 1590 CE.
- Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams, even with modern technology.
Computer and Programming Languages
- Visual J# (pronounced “jay-sharp”) programming language was a transitional language for programmers of Java and Visual J++ languages.
- So they could use their existing knowledge and applications on .NET Framework.
- The Hyderabad company Microsoft India Development Center at HITEC City in India made this development.
Kojo (programming language):
- Kojo is a programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) for computer programming and learning. Kojo is open-source software.
- Lalit Pant, a computer programmer and teacher living in Dehradun, India made the creation and the development of Kojo.
Science and Technology – Indian Inventions
- The source of the carbon pigment used in India ink was India.
- In India, the carbon black from which India ink is produced is obtained by burning bones, tar, pitch, and other substances.
- In the 4th century BCE, the ink got mix to use in the carbon pigment.
- The first public demonstration of microwave transmission is done by Jagadish Chandra Bose, in Calcutta, in 1895.
- Bose’s revolutionary demonstration forms the foundation of the technology used in mobile telephony, radars, satellite communication, radios, television broadcast, WiFi, remote controls and countless other applications.
- The word shampoo in English is derived from Hindustanichāmpo and dates to 1762.
- A variety of herbs and their extracts is made into shampoos in early times.
- A very effective early shampoo is done by boiling Sapindus with dry Indian gooseberry (aamla) and a few other herbs.
- Sapindus, also known as soapberries or soap nuts, is known as Kuna.
- The earliest known instance of a ploughed field was found at Kalibangan.
- Kalibangan was a city in the Indus Valley Civilization.
- The first iron-cased and metal-cylinder rockets were developed by Tipu Sultan, ruler of the South Indian Kingdom of Mysore, in the 1780s.
- He successfully used these iron-cased rockets against the British East India Company during the Anglo-Mysore Wars.
- They used iron tubes for holding the propellant, this enabled higher thrust and longer range for the missile (up to 2 km range).
- After Tipu’s defeat in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War and the capture of the Mysore iron rockets, the British used them in rocket development, which led to the Congreve rocket, and were soon put into use in the Napoleonic Wars.
Male Contraceptive Injection:
- Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance (RISUG), referred to as the synthetic polymer styrene maleic anhydride (SMA), is the male contraceptive injection developed at IIT Kharagpur in India by the team of Dr. Sujoy K Guha.
- It has been patented in India, China, Bangladesh, and the United States. A method based on RISUG, Vasalgel, is currently under development in the US.
- The game of kabaddi originated in India during prehistory.
- Suggestions on how it evolved into the modern form range from wrestling exercises, military drills, and collective self-defence but most authorities agree that the game existed in some form or the other in India.
- It is there during the period between 1500 and 400 BCE.
- Pachisi originated in India by the 6th century.
- The earliest evidence of this game in India is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta.
- Mughal emperors of India; a notable example Akbar uses to play this game.
- who played living Pachisi using girls from his harem.
- A variant of this game, called Luodo, made its way to England during the British Raj.
- Chess originated in India during the Gupta dynasty (c. 280-550 CE). Both the Persians and Arabs ascribe the origins of the game of Chess to the Indians.
- The words for “chess” in Old Persian and Arabic are chatrang and shatranj respectively — terms derived from caturaṅga in Sanskrit, which literally means an army of four divisions or four corps.
- Buddhist pilgrims, Silk Road traders and others carried it to the Far East where it was transformed and assimilated into a game often played on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares.
- Chaturanga reached Europe through Persia, the Byzantine empire and the expanding Arabian empire.
- Muslims carried Shatranj to North Africa, Sicily, and Spain by the 10th century where it took its final modern form of chess.
Snakes and ladders:
- Vaikunta pali Snakes and ladders originated in India as a game based on morality.
- During British rule of India, this game made its way to England and was eventually took an introduction in the United States of America by game-pioneer Milton Bradley in 1943.
Materials and Material production
- Ornamental buttons—made from seashell—were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by 2000 BCE.
- Ian McNeil (1990) holds that: “The button, in fact, was originally used more as an ornament than as a fastening.
- The button is in the shape of curve shell.
- Calico had originated in the subcontinent by the 11th century and found mention in Indian literature, by the 12th-century writer Hemachandra.
- He has mentioned calico fabric prints done in a lotus design.
- The Indian textile merchants traded in calico with the Africans by the 15th century and calico fabrics from Gujarat appeared in Egypt.
- Within India, calico originated in Kozhikode.
Charkha (Spinning wheel):
- It was invented in India, between 500 and 1000 C.E.
- The fiber is also known as pashm or pashmina for its use in the handmade shawls of Kashmir, India.
- The founder of the cashmere wool industry is the 15th-century ruler of Kashmir, Zayn-ul-Abidin.
- Cotton was cultivated by the inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization by the 5th millennium BCE – 4th millennium BCE.
- The Indus cotton industry was well developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be practiced till the modern Industrialization of India.
- Well before the Common Era, the use of cotton textiles had spread from India to the Mediterranean and beyond.
- Indigo, a blue pigment and a dye, was used in India, which was also the earliest major center for its production and processing.
- The Indigofera tinctoria variety of Indigo was domesticated in India. Indigo, used as a dye, made its way to the Greeks and the Romans via various trade routes, and was valued as a luxury product.
- Jute has been cultivated in India since ancient times. Raw jute was exported to the western world, where it was used to make ropes and cordage.
- The region of Bengal was the major center for Jute cultivation, and remained so before the modernization of India’s jute industry in 1855, when Kolkatabecame a center for jute processing in India.
- Sugarcane was originally from tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia, with different species originating in India, and S. edule and S. officinarum from New Guinea.
- The process of producing crystallized sugar from sugarcane was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, and the earliest reference of candied sugar comes from India.
- Yoga as a physical, mental, and spiritual practice originated in ancient India.
- The mathematician Brahmagupta had begun using abbreviations for unknowns by the 7th century.
- He employed abbreviations for multiple unknowns occurring in one complex problem.
- Brahmagupta also used abbreviations for square roots and cube roots.
- The Basu’s theorem, a result of Debabrata Basu (1955) states that any complete sufficient statistic is independent of any ancillary statistic.
- Bhaskara II got credit with knowledge of Rolle’s theorem.
- Although it is after Michel Rolle name who describes with insufficient proof.
Hindu number system:
- With decimal place-value and a symbol for zero, this system was the ancestor of the widely used Arabic numeral system.
- The development took place in the Indian subcontinent between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.
- Virahanka in c. 700 AD describes the first Sequence.
- Gopala (c. 1135) took the next step to the series, and Hemachandra (c. 1150), as an outgrowth of the earlier writings on Sanskrit prosody by Pingala (c. 200 BC).
Other Major Indian Inventions
- Indians were the first to use the zero as a symbol and in arithmetic operations, although Babylonians used zero to signify the ‘absent’.
- In those earlier times, to denote zero a blank space came as use.
- Later when it is creating confusion a dot made a replacement to denote zero.
- In 500 AD circa Aryabhata again gave a new symbol for zero (0).
- In the 6th century CE by Varahamihira and in the 10th century by Halayudha, commenting on an obscure reference by Pingala (the author of earlier work on prosody) to the “Meru-prastaara”, or the “Staircase of Mount Meru”, in relation to binomial coefficients.
Trigonometric functions (adapted from Greek):
- The trigonometric functions sine and versine originated in Indian astronomy, adapted from the full-chord Greek versions (to the modern half-chord versions).
- Aryabhata describes in detail about Trigonometric functions in the late 5th century.
- But it was likely got development earlier in the Siddhantas, astronomical treatises of the 3rd or 4th century.
Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine:
- Ayurveda and Siddha are ancient systems of medicine had a practice in South Asia.
- In the Hindu text, we can find Ayurvedic ideas.
- Ayurveda has evolved over thousands of years and is still practiced today.
- Cataract surgery is the Indian physician Sushruta (3rd century CE).
- In India, Jabamukhi Salaka is the special tool with which the cataract surgery is done.
- It is a curved needle used to loosen the lens and push the cataract out of the field of vision.
Diamond mining and diamond tools:
- Diamonds were first recognized and mined in central India, where significant alluvial deposits of the stone could then be found along the rivers Penner, Krishna and Godavari.
- India remained the world’s only source of diamonds until the discovery of diamonds in Brazil in the 18th century.
- Golconda served as an important centre for diamonds in central India. Diamonds then were exported to other parts of the world, including Europe.
- The Arthashastra of Kautilya mentions diamond trade in India. Buddhist works dating from the 4th century BCE mention it as a well-known and precious stone but don’t mention the details of diamond cutting.
- A Chinese work from the 3rd century BCE mentions: “Foreigners wear it [diamond] in the belief that it can ward off evil influences”.
- The Chinese, who did not find diamonds in their country, initially used diamonds as a “jade cutting knife” instead of as a jewel.
Zinc mining and medicinal zinc:
- Zinc was first smelted from zinc ore in India. Zinc mines of Zawar, near Udaipur, Rajasthan, were active during early Christian era.
- There are references of medicinal uses of zinc in the Charaka Samhita (300 BCE). The Rasaratna Samuccaya which dates back to the Tantric period (c. 5th – 13th century CE).
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